Ariel A. Roth, Ph.D.
Zoologist, and leading figure of Flood Geology
Pacific Union College (1948)
Bachelor of Arts – Biology
University of Michigan
M.S. – Biology (1949)
Ph.D. – Parasitology (1955)
Pacific Union College (PUC) (1950-1957)
Instructor to Associate Professor of Biology
Emmanuel Missionary College, now known as Andrews University (1958-1963)
Professor of Biology and Chairman of Biology Department
Loma Linda University
Research Associate (1957-1958)
Professor of Biology and Chairman of Biology Department (1963-1971)
Geoscience Research Institute – Acting Director (1971-1973)
Geoscience Research Institute – Director (1980─1994)
Geoscience Research Institute – Senior Research Scientist (1994–1996)
ORIGINS journal (1974─1996)
Complexity of the Eye and Brain
Without the foresight of a plan, we would expect that the random evolutionary changes would attempt all kinds of useless combinations of parts while trying to provide for a successful evolutionary advancement. Yet as we look at living organisms over the world, we do not seem to see any of these random combinations. In nature, it appears that we are dealing largely, if not exclusively, with purposeful parts. Furthermore, if evolution is a real ongoing process, why don’t we find new developing complex organs in organisms that lack them? We would expect to find developing legs, eyes, livers, and new unknown kinds of organs, providing for evolutionary advancement in organisms that lacked desirable advantages. This absence is a serious indictment against any proposed undirected evolutionary process, and favors the concept that what we see represents the work of an intelligent Creator.
The simple example of a muscle, mentioned above, pales into insignificance when we consider more complicated organs such as the eye or the brain. These contain many interdependent systems composed of parts that would be useless without the presence of all the other necessary parts. In these systems, nothing works until all the necessary components are present and working. The eye has an automatic focusing system that adjusts the lens so as to permit us to clearly see close and distant objects. We do not fully understand how it works, but a part of the brain analyzes data from the eye and controls the muscles in the eye that change the shape of the lens. The system that controls the size of the pupil so as to adjust to light intensity and to reduce spherical lens aberration also illustrates interdependent parts. Then there are the 100,000,000 light-sensitive cells in the human eye that send information to the brain through some 1,000,000 nerve fibers of the optic nerve. In the brain this information is sorted into various components such as color, movement, form and depth. It is then analyzed and combined into an intelligible picture. This involves an extremely complex array of interdependent parts.
But the visual process is only part of our complex brains, which contain some 100,000,000,000 nerve cells connected by some 400,000 kilometers of nerve fibres. It is estimated that there are around 100,000,000,000,000 connections between nerve cells in the human brain. That we can think straight (we hope most of us do!) is a witness to a marvelous ordered complex of interdependent parts that challenges suggestions of an origin by random evolutionary changes. How could such complicated organs develop by an unplanned process?
Science Discovers God: Seven Convincing Lines of Evidence for His Existence
Author: Ariel A. Roth
Hardcover: 251 pages
Publisher: Autumn House Publishing (October 2008)
List Price: $19.99